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The benefits of physical activity have been extensively reported in preventing chronic diseases. Physical activity is also an important intervention in weight loss or weight maintenance. Popular weight loss TV shows highlight the importance of high intensity exercise as a main contributor to the weight loss achieved by the contestants. The truth is that exercise without some eating changes might only marginally promote long term weight loss….. but why?

One reason given is the possibility of an accompanying increase in appetite as a compensatory response to the energy expenditure in those that only use exercise as their preferred weight loss prescription. In studies conducted on overweight/obese men it was found that there was a decrease in appetite after moderately to vigorous exercise of 30-90 minutes. In lower intensity activities appetite appeared to remain the same irrespective of whether the men participated in brisk walking, running or cycling.

With the recent discovery of gut peptides involved in appetite regulation a different picture is now emerging. The reasoning is that ghrelin and other gut peptides could possibly regulate food intake for as long as 24 hours post exercise and might not be controlled by body fat stores. Ghrelin is released by the cells in the stomach and generally peaks during fasting increasing appetite and drops after eating and is now thought to be part of appetite control.

What happens to Ghrelin after different types of physical activity if performed at the same energy expenditure?

It appears that ghrelin can increase after running but remains the same after walking in overweight subjects. This could be explained by the greater intensity and energy expenditure in running compared to walking causing an increase in post exercise appetite. When overweight walkers are given the opportunity to eat post walking bout they are more likely to eat less but eat food higher in fat and protein in their subsequent meals.

In overweight women there is a reported increased release of Ghrelin and a lower insulin response post exercise both of which can increase appetite. In overweight men Ghrelin levels is generally much lower indicating that there is apparently a gender difference in the way that exercise affects appetite.

This would indicate that post exercise increases in Ghrelin and reduced insulin secretion in overweight women poses a real threat in weight loss programs that use high intensity based exercise without some dietary regulation. Overweight men appear to respond more effectively to higher intensity exercise weight loss programs without any dietary change when compared to overweight women.

Overweight women can match their post exercise energy intake to at least their pre exercise energy level after intense exercise. However, men appear to not match their post exercise energy intake with their exercise energy expenditure. 

The implication for this anomaly between genders is that overweight women potentially have limited success in intense exercise induced weight loss generally resulting in no change in post exercise fat oxidation. One of the key reasons why overweight women increase their post exercise energy intake is the critical relationship between energy balance and reproductive function. Energy restriction or energy deficiency can lead to changes in Ovulatory cycles and menstruation cycles.

Another explanation for the gender differences in post exercise energy intake could be the generally lower fitness levels and higher body fat levels presented by overweight women. This information might go to some length to explain why some overweight women have difficulty in reducing body fat after intense exercise.

It is now apparent that overweight men and overweight women differ in their response to weight loss programs that only stress intense exercise without some form of dietary regulation.

We have been told conclusively that high intensity exercise will increase the energy deficit leading to a reduced energy intake and possibly weight loss. Ironically in overweight women, intense exercise can increase energy intake post exercise and is almost entirely compensated for during the remainder of the exercise bout day.

In lower intensity exercise where energy expenditure is lower there is reportedly no accompanying increase in energy intake back to pre-exercise levels in either gender.

Could it be that lower intensity physical activity over the course of a 24 hour day performed by overweight women can induce a greater energy deficit without a concomitant increase in energy intake?

If this is the case lower intensity physical activity could be more effective for overweight women while high intensity exercise could be more beneficial for overweight men in weight loss.

Overweight women need a combination of exercise and an energy deficit eating plan for long term weight loss success if high intensity exercise is prescribed.

Alternatively, increased lower intensity levels of “Activities of Daily Living” over a woman’s waking hours might even be more effective for long term weight loss.

Dr Paul Batman
Australian College
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Given the universal interest in weight loss and fat loss you would think this question has a simple answer.

Of a survey completed on 150 doctors, dieticians and personal trainers the widespread answer in over 50% of the respondents was that fat is converted to heat and energy as it is broken down. Others suggested that fat was excreted in faeces or taken up by the muscle.

The misconception and ignorance of this subject is alarming considering those professionals at the forefront are still unsure of what really happens to fat during weight loss.

We know that when we eat additional carbohydrate, protein and fat it is converted into triglycerides and stored in the adipocyte or fat cell. So if we want to lose weight but at the same time maintain our lean body mass we have to create a situation where we can metabolise fat stored in the adipocyte.

As fat is being metabolised a hormone called lipase is released and is responsible for the further breakdown of fat. Lipase works by breaking down triglycerides in our adipocytes into smaller molecules, and ultimately gets released as energy in the form of ATP, water and carbon dioxide.

ATP is used to fuel our movements as well as our metabolism, but what happens to water and carbon dioxide?

In a study published in the British Medical Journal the researchers have modified existing calculations to identify where fat goes in weight loss.

They reported that the triglycerides (consists of carbon, hydrogen and oxygen) must be broken down to gain access to the carbon, which can eventually be breathed out…

Thats right…the mass is converted to carbon dioxide and breathed out through our lungs!! So that’s where the fat goes!

What this tells us is that the lungs are the primary excretory organs for weight loss.

Don’t get me wrong, this doesn’t mean that simply by breathing harder or deeper will help you lose more weight. The fat must be broken down to carbon through physical activity or metabolism before it can be exhaled through the lungs.

If we want to lose 10kg of fat we would change our macronutrient contribution of our food plan and participate in more physical activity.

As a consequence of this weight loss prescription we would need to inhale 29kg of oxygen and burn approximately 94,000 Kcals, while producing 28kgs of carbon dioxide and 11kgs of water.

Its been calculated that 84% of the fat used is exhaled as carbon dioxide and 16% is excreted as fluid either in the form of sweat or urine.

Dr Ruben Meerman and Professor Andrew J Brown reported a great case study as to how carbon dioxide is formed and extracted from our body during fat metabolism.

“At rest, an average 70 kg person consuming a mixed diet of carbohydrates, protein and fat exhales about 200 ml of CO2 in 12 breaths per minute. Each of those breaths excretes 33 mg of CO2, of which 8.9 mg is carbon.

 When at rest and performing light activities that doubles the resting metabolic rate (2 METS), each for 8 hours, this person exhales 0.74 kg of CO2 so that 203 g of carbon is lost from the body.

Replacing one hour of rest with physical activity that raises the metabolic rate to seven times (7 METS) that of resting (e.g. jogging), removes an additional 39g of carbon from the body, raising the total by about 20% to 240g.”

The calculations from the researchers suggest that weight loss is all about unlocking the carbon from the fat molecule so that it can be exhaled through the lungs.

An interesting and new view to fat loss…

Dr Paul Batman
Australian College

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1/. Do you have Flaccid Fin Syndrome?

On a recent summer holiday, I noticed the number of holiday makers really making the most of their leisure time by lazying around more than enough, sipping cocktails by the side of the pool, power napping and generally restricting their daily movement to levels way below their their normal daily energy


2/. Great places to study

Sick of studying at home or in the same place over and over again? Well, we’ve come up with some great places of where to study if you’re feeling a bit adventurous.


3/. 150+ Courses across 10 Academic Faculties

Australian College is a leading provider of blended delivery (campus based and online training), courses. From 2016 we have been offering an array of campus based courses in our brand new facility, here at Surry Hills, Sydney.


Next Upcoming Fitness Courses:

Our campus based Intensives are offered as either Full Time (day time) or Part Time (evenings), please download your brochure for details on all course structures and courses dates throughout the year, or see below for upcoming course dates:

  • Full-Time campus-based Certificate III in Fitness Intensive (Monday-Friday 9:30am-5pm)

           Next Intake Dates: 20th June 2016 (filling fast)

  • Part-Time campus-based Certificate III in Fitness Intensive (Monday-Tuesday 6-8pm + 2 x Saturday pracs 10.30-4pm)

           Next Intake Dates: 20th June 2016 (filling fast) 

  • NEW Course – Braddon, Canberra ACT. Full-Time campus-based Certificate III in Fitness Intensive (Monday-Friday 9:30am-5pm)

           Next Intake Dates: 11/7/2016 

* The campus based intensives complement your online and skills based program delivery 



60 Blogs available as an eBook, if you refer a person to our Cert III or Cert IV in Fitness Courses.

Dr Paul Batman has written 60 blogs (500 - 1,500 words each), on fitness and health related issues (like the two above), ranging from muscle fibre recruitment to sedentary behaviour and optimal methods of weight loss. These blogs are suitable for personal trainers to read and discuss and to hand out as information sheets for their clients.  If a student, you refer* enrols in either a Cert III or Cert IV in Fitness course and names you as their referral we will send you an eBook of all 60 blogs for you to read and/or to give out to your clients. Additionally, or if you like simply remain subscribed to our newsletter and you will receive several blogs a month for your own use. Enjoy :-)

*conditions apply



"F45 is the revolutionary training system changing lives around the globe. Born in Australia, this phenomenal system is now spreading through continents like wildfire. A team training facility in which members are challenged everyday. Experience different training movements, exercises and timing to achieve incredible results and have fun with colleagues.

With the blend of business acumen and PT genius, F45 has all the systems, structure and controls in place. F45 is a cult; it has to be experienced to believe. So much so, the brand has now trained Ricky Martin, Joel Madden, and Nicole Richie to name a few…”


Enquire about your 2 week FREE pass now:
Little Fins Swim School Level 1, 8 Flora St Kirrawee

Braddon, Canberra ACT
16-18 Mort St Canberra City (Access via Cooyong St)
This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.
0424 717 736



The boys are back…….Dr Paul Batman and Andrew Richardson (former owners and founders of FIA), are now back lecturing in the fitness industry.  Paul and Andrew will now head a new academic faculty of Fitness Professionals, delivering Certificate III and IV in Fitness, at their recently renovated Surry Hills campus (see more info below), in Sydney. 

Having trained over 30,000 Personal Trainers over the last 20+ years and after a short break,  in which time they were involved in various independent research/study pursuits, they are now back and have developed all new course materials for the Certificate III and IV in Fitness, based on the latest “cutting edge research”.  Their intention is to offer a high quality educational program that will see graduates entering the fitness industry, with not only the skills but the latest underpinning knowledge, required to perform their role as a fitness professional. 

The new Australian College - Fitness (ACF) courses will offer the latest information based on fitness research and will include the newest exercise prescription guidelines available. 

Australian College is the first private RTO to have the newest government training package added to their scope and has developed a unique online learning platform (CREATINE), allowing students to not only attend campus based lectures, you will also be given comprehensive lectures with audio and handouts for each and every lecture and more importantly – you will be able ask any question and gain comprehensive answers, directly from the authors, lecturers and tutors for the course. 

Additionally, as you are completing these courses you will be provided with access to comprehensive readings and many other learning resources for each and every unit, which can simply downloaded to mobile devices and/or as pdfs and continually used throughout your professional career.



VET Fee Help in Fitness…….. Fitness Professionals Beware!

In the fitness industry there are some training providers who are now advertising entry-level Diploma courses in Fitness that are VET FEE Help funded. They imply that to enter the fitness industry as a practising professional that the Diploma is the qualification required and most sought after.  The truth is that to be registered as a Personal Trainer, which is the highest level of registration with the peak body Fitness Australia, a Certificate III in Fitness and Certificate IV in Fitness are the registration requirements, not a Diploma.

There is no need to enrol in one of these expensive Diplomas that qualify for VET FEE Help at a cost in excess of $15,000 when the entry level requirement by the fitness industry is a Certificate III and Certificate IV in Fitness which should cost no more than $4,000.  It makes little sense to enrol in a Diploma in an area of fitness where there is no vocational outcome and at a cost that is ridiculously in excess of the legitimate industry entry-level course costs. Take a look at our other blogs on VET Fee Help.

For your own benefit be vigilant by checking your course costs and comparing them to other course providers and ask your education training provider is there an interest free 12 months period over which you could pay off your course fee.  In the long term you will pay only a fraction of the VET FEE Help course fees that are currently being asked. Remember the quality of VET course you enrol in is not based on inflated course tuition fees or celebratory endorsements.

Australian College - Fitness charges $2,900 for a nationally accredited combined Certificate III in Fitness and Certificate IV in Fitness and $2,675 for the Diploma of Leadership and Management (Fitness Entrepreneur).  Australian College also offers a 12 months interest free period to pay off your course fees and does not require you to apply for a VET FEE Help student loan. 


$1bn sting in vocational training college rort

Top vocational college AIPE may be shut down



  • Permanent role in Australia’s largest weight management company
  • Located in Ultimo, near Broadway Shopping Centre and public transport
  • Collaborative team and work environment

Weight Watchers

Food & Nutrition Coordinator 

Weight Watchers are the global leader in weight management, with a program that is scientifically proven to be the most successful solution in the market. Our vision is to change people's relationship with people for good, helping them to get health and lost weight in a sustainable way which can be done through many different channels including Group Coaching, Online Coaching, 1 on 1 Coaching and Phone Coaching. Our business is extremely diverse and also has significant revenue streams via licensing deals, publishing arrangements, Online and shopping centre retail.

We are currently going through a major global transformation which includes innovating all aspects of our offering to become a customer centric organisation and there is significant work being undertaken to continue to improve customer experience and deliver new propositions to market.

With input from our global workforce, we have created a new culture of Think Differently, Get Things Done and Win Together – and we bring this culture to life in everything we do.

The role

As our Food Database Coordinator, your primary responsibility would be to manage our internal food databases which are the foundation for all of our publications including the WW Magazine, our cookbooks, SMARTPOINTS guides, Program material and our online program and mobile apps.

Key Responsibilities

  • Upgrade and maintenance of our food and recipe databases including liaising with food manufacturers, suppliers, distributors and Quick Service Restaurants (QSRs) to request nutritional data on their food products
  • Ensuring data integrity and accuracy in our databases.
  • Work closely with our US team and global database administrators in other markets
  • Liaise with off shore team for data entry
  • Review excel template work completed by nutrition interns prior to submission for offshore data entry
  • Liaise with the Food and Nutrition Manager for final check of nutrition information across food range and recipe approval.
  • Carry out regular data integrity report to pick up inconsistencies.
  • Design a work flow which minimizes the risk of errors.
  • Work closely with the Food and Nutrition Manager to communicate any food data updates,
  • Assist in approval of WW Foods NPD briefs and final packaging artwork
  • Participating in various food and nutrition related projects Supporting our Customer Care team to answer consumer queries, which are relating to the SmartPoints value of foods


To be successful in this role you have:

  • At least 12 months experience as a high level user of relational databases
  • Good background and understanding in food science and nutrition and associated nutrition qualifications
  • Very high attention to detail is essential
  • Well-developed computer skills, in particular MS Access, excel and good understanding of relational databases.
  • Fitness qualifications will be highly regarded.

This role represents an excellent opportunity to gain experience with a global organisation that will welcome and support your ideas and efforts.

Ready to apply

Does this sound like the role for you? Please apply using the button below and ensure you include a cover letter along with your resume - applications will close at 5pm on Friday 3rd June 2016. 

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Sick of studying at home or in the same place over and over again? Well, we’ve come up with some great places of where to study if you’re feeling a bit adventurous.


Local Library

Or a university library. Libraries are full of information in different mediums and you’re in an environment where people are in a similar mental zone as you so it keeps you motivated to study. There are always private rooms you can book. Libraries have such great organisational interiors that make you feel cosy and comfortable. If you love to be surrounded by books or just love having a quiet space to work in, a library is the way to go.



If you love the outdoors, this is the place for you. Being surrounded by greenery boosts your energy, keeps you motivated and generally boosts your mood. There’s something about studying in a park that is peaceful. Plus, if you have kids, you can take them to the park and work on your course on your laptop. 


Café with free wi-fi

Love coffee or even tea? There’s nothing better than sitting at a table with a cup of coffee or tea working on your laptop. What’s better? Most cafes free wifi! As long as you keep buying coffee or tea, the wifi is practically free. You get to observe different people who come into the café and pressure of others looking at you makes you work harder.


Your Room

Having a lazy day? Your room is where it’s at for the days’ activities. Working on your bed with your laptop in supreme comfort, what’s more to love? This is also probably the best place to procrastinate so watch out!


In a group

If you work better in a group, find someone else doing the same or similar course as you or do a course with a friend. It’s great to bounce off of each other with information, plus, you can have discussions about the course materials. Sometimes saying the material out loud helps lock it in.


The Beach

Now, this is the place for those with a calling to the ocean. Listening to the sounds of waves crashing is calming and soothing and gives a sense of tranquillity to your environment. This will only make you more focused on your work. Remember to re-apply your sunscreen! 


Art Gallery

Most art galleries have free entry, comfy booth sofas and even cute little spaces for sitting and relaxing. It’s a great way to educate and work in a place where everything is free for interpretation. The environment is also quiet and peaceful so those who love minimal noise will love this space.

On Campus 

With immediate access to your tutors and lecturers, the campus is so convenient if you ever need help with any course work. Doing your online course on campus, whether it be a university campus or your local school campus, can be beneficial with free wifi and access to a myriad of information.

Where do you love to study?

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On a recent summer holiday, I noticed the number of holiday makers really making the most of their leisure time by lazing around, eating more than enough, sipping cocktails by the side of the pool, power napping and generally restricting their daily movement to levels well below their normal daily energy expenditure.

While talking informally to some of my new friends, the standard joke was how after Christmas they were going to get in shape and work off their extra holiday Kcals. It made me think of how our ancestors would have adapted to the same summer holiday.

In generations past, our ancestors were motivated to move to find food rather than have it provided for them and then having to move to increase their energy expenditure in order to work off the additional kcals. This is a fundamental difference in how movement has been viewed in the past and how we see it now in our modern sedentary society.

Katy Bowman sums it up very well by saying: “exercise is movement, but movement is not exercise”.

We could say that our ancient bodies require more movement than exercise. That is not to say that they both cannot co-exist in the new lifestyle paradigm, only that exercise as we know it has its limitations in providing all the movement benefits that we require as well as overcoming the many side effects of a sedentary lifestyle.

I think that the solution lies in increasing our daily reliance on gravity, increasing our ground reaction forces by interacting with our environment and supporting our body weight as many times during the day as possible.

We know that walking for 10 kilometres will produce different long-term responses that walking three kilometres. The reverse is also true when the body doesn’t move. The same musculo-skeletal cells responsible for movement will waste away if movement is taken away from them.

Activities of daily living that formed a major part of our lives for the past 100,000 years has been all but removed from our modern society. This in turn has removed cellular loads that were so integral to supporting our hunter-gatherer lifestyle.

Without some major changes to our lifestyle it is almost impossible to recreate the movement patterns that were so necessary for our survival and for which our bodies were designed and evolved.

Going to gym for one hour a day does not recreate all the forces on our cells that were once so important. There has to be another answer! It can’t be entirely overcome by exercising for just 60 minutes per day…. it must include an increase in free-living opportunities throughout the day.

The new affluent diseases that we are now suffering from are a consequence to our new reduced movement patterns, load distributions and reduced cell deformations. We can’t survive without the correct foods eaten and we can’t survive without the multitude of movement patterns that our body has evolved to perform.

There might come a time where our bodies will be shaped by our new movement experiences and environment resulting in genetic changes that will be more suitable to just surviving in a sedentary society.

To support this assumption, observations have been reported in animals that have been kept in captivity. Marine biologist Wendy Alexandra Evans has described the “Flaccid Fin Syndrome” observed in Orca whales kept in captivity. The Orca’s dorsal fin collapses as a consequence of the restricted area they are permitted to swim in.

Ms Evans identifies behaviors that are unique to their captivity and that contribute to collapsed fin:

These include: only swim in an anti-clock wise direction, kept in shallow tanks, food intake has a lower water content than in the wild, the greater amount of time the whale spends on the surface in captivity. The dorsal fins are generally made of a similar collagen tissue to our ligaments; with males having a longer fin than females.

The reasons for these fin changes is the new environment that the whales must adapt too which is caused by unnaturally high loads during one directional tight circle swimming and the fin’s exposure to high exposure to gravity. If the Orca were in their normal habitat the overall loads and pressure would be significantly different from the loads experienced in captivity and as such the fin would take on a different appearance.

Perhaps we now are evolving similarly to animals that are kept in captivity.

It seems that the specificity principle is now working against us. We are now suffering from bad backs, osteoporosis, sarcopenia, diabetes, obesity etc., as a consequence of not performing a wide range of free-living movements for any significant time period and not using gravity as our bodies were intended to use it.

So, go home, dust off your bike, find your runners, sack your house cleaner and gardener and any other hired help and breakout and get to work!!

Dr Paul Batman

Australian College

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1300 783 283
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